The Evolution & Renaissance of the Art Studio
The art studio, by definition, is where artists bring art into existence. But how has the artist’s studio evolved since the Renaissance?
It is not hard to picture the messy workspace of the traditional artist busy with multiple commissions. The traditional artist’s studio has all the tools and materials necessary to create art: countless sketches and drawings, large canvases, a heavy easel, a palette with dripping paint, and pencils and paintbrushes scattered all over the place. Although the contemporary model of the studio bears much resemblance to this concept, and little has changed from the Middle Ages through the 1800s, new art forms and modern oversized art installations, kept introducing changes to the scene.
The story of the Artist’s Studio is a long and intricate one. The concept of the Artist’s Studio has existed in some form for as long as humans have been creating and making things, but it wasn’t until the Renaissance that artists started to earn widespread recognition and their studios began to take shape.
At times, the studio served as a meeting place of creative minds with a lot of hustle and bustle, and at times, it was where artists could enjoy solitude and focus on their art. Regardless of the setting, the process of making and creating art stayed the same, whether that be in the privacy of the artist’s own home, in a place that is quiet and secluded, within a bustling community, or in a dedicated rental.
Since its humble beginnings, the studio evolved together with various art styles and movements. Throughout history, the studio captured and reflected the spirit of the times. The social implications of this development were no less significant. For one thing, the rise of the artist and his studio was also the rise of the middle class. So how did the art studio evolve?
The Renaissance Art Studio: Studiolo & Bottega
The definition of the art studio as we know it can be traced back to the Renaissance. During the Italian Renaissance and elsewhere in Europe around the same time, Renaissance portrait studios were the artistic hubs. Artists of the Renaissance often required both a bottega and a study to do their work. They often depended on the Church and wealthy patrons for livelihood and commissions, and portraits were all the rage.
The artist’s bottega is a studio or a workshop, and it was one mainly used by the apprentices and assistants of the master artist. But there was also the studiolo, which served as a study separate from the studio itself.
The bottega and the studiolo were commonly located in the same building. It was usually located in an alcove or corner of a home where here they could go when they needed to do some painting, and it is not uncommon for there to be a separate door leading out of the main house so as not to disturb others. An important feature of this setting was that it could be situated so that several people could easily access it.
Peace and Quiet Assert Dominance
After the Renaissance, portraits of wealthy patrons and church commissions no longer dominated the art market and still lifes took the stage, especially in the North of Europe. But since artists still relied on commissions of portraits for livelihood, they also did a lot of self-portraits, mainly to hone their skills, but also to advertise their expertise. The developing oil painting technique enabled realistic depictions of everyday objects. The process involved a lot of mixing, layering, and slow drying. The studio became a place of contemplation, a workspace where artists could create with few interruptions and distractions, changing the definition of the art studio.
The Atelier vs. the Academy
The Atelier system was used by a master and apprentices in training. These students, who were known as assistants, did not only learn from the master but also painted under him for important works which would bear their master’s name. Once an apprentice would reach the status of a master, they would go on to open their own independent studios or workshops.
The French Academy system organized its own exhibitions or salons to exchange ideas, analyze artistic developments, and showcase and discuss their works. This paved the way for the development of the 20th-century Avant-guard movements.
A Breath of Fresh Air
The fruits of industrial advancements were evident in art. No longer was mixing paint a painstaking, labor-intensive process. The paint was now readily available in sets of aluminum tubes. The new, lightweight easels were foldable and portable. So the Impressionists began to paint en plein air: in the open air. They were free to create l’art pour l’art, art for art’s sake, as they no longer depended on wealthy patrons’ commissions.
They used the impressionist technique which was based on observation and an understanding of the effects light has on nature. Nature was their main source of inspiration and landscapes were their subject of choice. As a result, the definition of the art studio changed drastically.
Welcome to the Machine
Andy Warhol’s Factory was not just a place for wild parties for the hip 1960s crowd, but also a studio. The factory system enabled mass artistic production: producing large numbers of prints and paintings in a single location. The innovative studio model changed the definition of the art studio and turned the artists into a brand, which Warhol, a Pop Art icon, had managed to do. Warhol managed to commercialize art while, conveniently enough, also taking a jab at popular modern American culture, idolization of celebrities, and overconsumption.
Assembly Line Painting: Upcycling the Industrial
The assembly line system served as a role model for some of today’s studios. Some artists have entire teams of people specializing in different art forms. They all work together within an industrial setting, such as abandoned industrial facilities and warehouses. Some are struggling artists and some are already established.
While this is not necessarily a bad thing and may even benefit many of the artists involved in the assembly line painting process, it is somewhat ironic considering the fact that the actual industrial production which involves human labor and assembly lines is being phased out with the advancement of technology. Hopefully, it will be a long time before algorithm-generated AI art can replace human-created art, and our ability to create art that is unique, non-generic, and comes from the soul.